How common is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Each year in the United States, about 13,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed and about 4,000 women die of this cancer.1

The incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer can vary across different regions and populations. In high-income countries, widespread screening programs have contributed to a decline in cervical cancer cases. However, in low- and middle-income countries, where access to screening and healthcare resources may be limited, cervical cancer remains a major health issue.

It is important to note that cervical cancer is largely preventable through early detection and vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the primary cause of cervical cancer. Regular screenings, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, can detect pre-cancerous changes in the cervix, allowing for early intervention and treatment.

Cervical cancer is more common in women who have certain risk factors, including persistent HPV infection, a weakened immune system, smoking and a history of sexually transmitted infections. By addressing these risk factors and promoting awareness, education and access to preventive measures, the incidence of cervical cancer can be further reduced.

What are the most common signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer often presents with certain signs and symptoms that women should be aware of. While these symptoms may vary from person to person, some common signs of cervical cancer2 include:

  1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding: This may include bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse or after menopause.
  2. Unusual vaginal discharge: Cervical cancer can cause an increase in vaginal discharge that may be watery, bloody or have a foul odor.
  3. Pelvic pain: Women with cervical cancer may experience persistent or intermittent pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen.
  4. Pain during sexual intercourse: Some women may experience discomfort or pain during intercourse, known as dyspareunia.
  5. Urinary problems: Advanced cervical cancer can cause urinary symptoms such as frequent urination, blood in the urine or urinary incontinence.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by various other conditions, and having these symptoms does not necessarily mean a woman has cervical cancer. However, if any of these symptoms persist or are concerning, it is crucial to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and appropriate testing.

Early detection through regular cervical cancer screenings, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, is essential for identifying precancerous changes or early-stage cervical cancer when treatment is most effective.

How is cervical cancer treated?

Cervical cancer treatment options depend on various factors such as the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health and their preferences. The primary treatment methods for cervical cancer include:

  1. Surgery: Surgical procedures may be performed to remove the cancerous tissue in the cervix. This can involve removing the abnormal cells, a cone biopsy to remove a larger portion of the cervix or a hysterectomy in more advanced cases.
  2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells. It can be administered externally or internally. External beam radiation therapy targets the cancer from outside the body, while brachytherapy involves placing radioactive material directly into or near the tumor.
  3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It can be given orally or intravenously. In cervical cancer treatment, chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy to enhance its effectiveness.
  4. Focused treatment: Brachytherapy is a form of focused therapy that directly targets cancer cells with high doses of radiation, limiting damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Brachytherapy is the primary treatment for certain cases of cervical cancer, offering precise and effective therapy.

Treatment plans are personalized based on the individual's specific situation, and often a combination of these treatment modalities is used to achieve the best outcomes. It is important for patients to discuss their treatment options with a healthcare team consisting of gynecologic oncologists, radiation oncologists and medical oncologists to determine the most suitable approach.

Pros and cons of surgery for cervical cancer treatment

Surgery is one of the primary treatment options for cervical cancer. Like any medical procedure, it has its pros and cons. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of surgery for cervical cancer treatment:

Pros of surgery for cervical cancer:Cons of surgery for cervical cancer:

Localized treatment: Surgery directly removes the cancerous tissue from the cervix, which can be beneficial for early-stage cervical cancer confined to the cervix.

Invasive procedure: Surgery for cervical cancer involves a surgical incision and may require anesthesia. It carries risks associated with any surgical procedure, including bleeding, infection and adverse reactions to anesthesia.

Potential for cure: In some cases, surgery alone can result in a complete cure, especially for early-stage cervical cancer.

Potential for complications: Surgical procedures may have associated risks and complications, such as damage to nearby organs, blood vessels or nerves.

Preservation of fertility: Certain surgical procedures, such as cone biopsy or trachelectomy, aim to preserve fertility by removing the cancerous tissue while leaving the uterus intact.

Impact on reproductive organs: In some cases, surgical treatment may involve the removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) or other reproductive organs, which can impact fertility and result in changes to sexual function.

Recovery time: Surgery typically requires a recovery period, during which the patient may experience discomfort, pain or limited mobility.

Pros and cons of radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer

Radiation therapy is a common treatment modality for cervical cancer. Like any medical intervention, it has its pros and cons. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of radiation therapy for cervical cancer:

Pros of radiation therapy for cervical cancer:Cons of radiation therapy for cervical cancer:

Non-invasive treatment: Radiation therapy is a non-surgical approach that delivers targeted radiation to the cancerous cells, allowing for localized treatment without the need for incisions or anesthesia.

Potential side effects: Radiation therapy can cause side effects, including fatigue, skin irritation, gastrointestinal discomfort, urinary problems and vaginal dryness or narrowing. These side effects can vary in severity and may be temporary or long-term.

Preserving organ function: Radiation therapy aims to destroy cancer cells while preserving the function of nearby organs, such as the uterus and ovaries, which may be important for reproductive and sexual health.

Impact on fertility: In some cases, radiation therapy to the pelvic area may affect fertility and increase the risk of premature menopause. Prior counseling and fertility preservation options should be discussed with the healthcare team.

Effectiveness in early-stage and advanced cases: Radiation therapy can be used as the primary treatment for early-stage cervical cancer or in combination with other therapies to treat advanced cervical cancer, offering a potential curative or palliative approach.

Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, which carries a small risk of developing secondary cancers in the long term. However, the benefits of treatment often outweigh this risk, and radiation doses are carefully planned and monitored to minimize exposure to healthy tissues.

Outpatient procedure: Most radiation therapy sessions are performed on an outpatient basis, allowing patients to return home afterward and resume their daily activities.

Treatment duration: Radiation therapy is typically administered over several weeks, requiring regular treatment sessions. This can be a time-consuming commitment for patients.

Pros and cons of chemotherapy to treat cervical cancer

Chemotherapy is a treatment option commonly used for cervical cancer. Like any medical intervention, it has its pros and cons. Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of chemotherapy for cervical cancer:

Pros of chemotherapy for cervical cancer:Cons of chemotherapy for cervical cancer:

Systemic treatment: Chemotherapy is administered through the bloodstream, allowing it to reach cancer cells throughout the body. This makes it effective for treating cancer that has spread beyond the cervix or to other organs.

Side effects: Chemotherapy drugs target rapidly dividing cells, which can affect not only cancer cells but also healthy cells in the body. This can lead to side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, decreased blood cell counts and increased susceptibility to infections.

Potential for tumor shrinkage: Chemotherapy can shrink tumors, providing symptomatic relief and improving the effectiveness of other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation therapy.

Impact on fertility: Some chemotherapy drugs may have adverse effects on fertility, causing temporary or permanent infertility. Prior counseling and fertility preservation options should be discussed with the healthcare team.

Adjuvant treatment: Chemotherapy can be used as an adjuvant therapy after surgery or radiation therapy to help kill any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Cumulative toxicity: Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles, allowing the body time to recover between treatments. However, the cumulative effects of multiple cycles can result in long-term toxicity and potential damage to organs.

Combination therapy: Chemotherapy is often used in combination with other treatment modalities, such as radiation therapy, to enhance the overall effectiveness of the treatment.

Limited effectiveness in advanced stages: While chemotherapy can be effective in treating cervical cancer, its effectiveness may be limited in advanced stages of the disease, particularly when the cancer has spread extensively.

Pros and cons of brachytherapy to treat cervical cancer

Brachytherapy is a treatment option commonly used for cervical cancer. Here are some of the pros and cons of brachytherapy to treat cancer:

Pros of brachytherapy for cervical cancer:Cons of brachytherapy for cervical cancer:

Targeted treatment: Brachytherapy delivers radiation directly to the tumor site, allowing for precise targeting of cancer cells while minimizing radiation exposure to surrounding healthy tissues and organs.

Invasive procedure: Brachytherapy requires the insertion of radioactive sources or applicators directly into the cervix or nearby tissues. This procedure may carry risks such as infection, bleeding or damage to surrounding structures.

Higher radiation dose: Brachytherapy enables the delivery of higher radiation doses to the tumor compared to external beam radiation therapy. This can enhance the effectiveness of the treatment in killing cancer cells.

Side effects: Like any radiation therapy, brachytherapy can cause side effects such as fatigue, vaginal dryness or discharge, bladder or bowel changes and temporary or permanent infertility in some cases.

Organ preservation: Brachytherapy is often used as a curative treatment for early-stage cervical cancer, allowing for the preservation of the uterus and maintaining fertility in certain cases.

Limited reach: Brachytherapy treats a localized area, which may not be suitable for advanced-stage cervical cancer that has spread beyond the cervix. In such cases, brachytherapy may be combined with other treatment modalities to provide comprehensive care.

Shorter treatment duration: Brachytherapy typically involves shorter treatment periods compared to other radiation therapy techniques, reducing the overall treatment time for patients.

Expertise and infrastructure requirements: Brachytherapy requires specialized equipment and trained medical professionals to ensure safe and effective treatment delivery. Availability may vary based on geographical location and healthcare facilities.

How does brachytherapy work to treat cervical cancer?

Brachytherapy is a radiation therapy technique used to treat cervical cancer. It involves the precise placement of radioactive sources directly into or near the tumor site. These sources emit radiation that kill cancer cells and shrinks tumors.

The process of brachytherapy begins with the insertion of applicators into the cervix, either through the vagina or a surgically created opening. These applicators hold the radioactive sources in place. The radiation sources may be in the form of seeds, wires or capsules.

Once the applicators are in position, the radiation oncologist determines the appropriate dosage and treatment duration. During the treatment, the radioactive sources deliver a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to nearby healthy tissues.

Brachytherapy can be administered in different ways, including low-dose rate (LDR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. In LDR brachytherapy, the radioactive sources remain in place for a longer duration, typically several days. In HDR brachytherapy, the radiation sources are temporarily inserted for a shorter period, often minutes to hours.

The targeted radiation destroys cancer cells by damaging their DNA, preventing them from dividing and growing. Over time, the tumor shrinks, and cancer cells are eliminated. Brachytherapy offers the advantage of delivering a concentrated dose of radiation directly to the tumor, resulting in effective cancer treatment with reduced impact on healthy tissues.

It's important to note that brachytherapy is often used in combination with other treatments such as external beam radiation therapy or chemotherapy to provide comprehensive care and achieve the best treatment outcomes for cervical cancer patients. The treatment plan is tailored to each patient's specific condition and may involve a combination of therapies to maximize effectiveness.

How will my treatment for cervical cancer be decided?

Determining the best treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the location and size of the tumor, the overall health of the patient and individual preferences. It is crucial to consult with a team of healthcare professionals, including gynecologic oncologists, radiation oncologists and medical oncologists, who specialize in treating cervical cancer.

To determine the most suitable treatment approach, the medical team will conduct a thorough evaluation, which may include:

  1. Staging and tumor assessment: Through physical examinations, imaging tests (such as MRI or CT scans), and sometimes surgical procedures, the extent and stage of the cancer will be determined. This information helps guide treatment decisions.
  2. Medical history and overall health: The patient's medical history, including previous treatments or surgeries, existing medical conditions and overall health status, will be considered to evaluate the feasibility and potential risks of specific treatments.
  3. Multidisciplinary discussion: A team of healthcare professionals will review all relevant information and discuss the case in a multidisciplinary setting. They will consider various treatment options and collaborate to develop an individualized treatment plan.
  4. Patient preferences: The patient's values, goals and preferences play a significant role in treatment decisions. Open communication with the medical team is crucial to ensure the patient's voice is heard, and their treatment preferences are taken into account.

The recommended treatment options for cervical cancer may include surgery, radiation therapy (such as external beam radiation or brachytherapy), chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these modalities. Each treatment option has its own benefits, potential risks, and side effects.

During consultations with the medical team, they will provide detailed information about the treatment options, including their goals, expected outcomes, potential side effects and long-term effects. They will address any concerns or questions you may have, allowing you to make an informed decision regarding the best treatment approach for your specific situation.

Remember, the decision-making process should be a shared effort between the patient and the medical team, ensuring that the chosen treatment aligns with the individual's unique circumstances, preferences, and overall well-being.

The Precise Answer for Tackling Cervical Cancer

Download the cervical cancer patient guide (pdf)

Further Resources:

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, May 17). Cervical cancer statistics. Retrieved from
  2. American Cancer Society. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer. Retrieved from: